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Ceramics

Here we present some information on our material, of which our family is linked by more than forty years .

Thoughts taken from our memories :image14 
In our opinion Ceramics is a unique material that gives you a way to realize your fantasies , leaving you even today after more than 13,000 years after its invention , to achieve a single article for shape or color , in order to distinguish yourself from all over the world.

• For this reason that the Arte Fabris continues to invest to spread the art that our experience has taught us , with a relationship with our customers that goes beyond the purchase, but it can become a common project, running from a ' idea to end in reality, only an object that comes from you!

The Ceramics is history , Ceramic is the earth, the Ceramic are ideas , Ceramic is craftsmanship, La Ceramic was the first material aid invented man ... We think that it is and will be for many years to ...


Ideas + Earth + Water + Fire + Craftsmanship = Ceramics Arte Fabris

Historical Backgroundimage29  
The pottery is probably the first material known and used by man, the first findings date back to the prehistoric period . This material has followed the evolution of the human race step by step , from the early pottery cooked directly over the fire , the following items improved by the introduction of the lathe. In Europe, the first painted ceramic peeped the threshold of the third millennium BC Ben later around the eighth century A.D. appears to be a novelty in the history of this material : the introduction of porcelain. In the Middle Ages ceramics were made ​​on a lathe , baked and sealed with glaze , until the thirteenth century began to use other colors with decorations most sought after. At the end of the nineteenth century the production of ceramics for industrial level takes shape thanks to the discovery of some industrial techniques , followed later in the fifties by the first automatic presses and ovens "tunnel" . These techniques help the medium to large- scale production to meet the growing market, but in the years 1960/1970 that the ceramics market sees a real surge in Italy . . From the eighties onwards, finally, we have focused mainly on cooking techniques fast ( quick cooking monolayer ) and reducing the environmental impact of production. Within a few years are also used for the construction of discs for braking systems , compounds of carbon and ceramic , able to decrease the effect of fading , and then also for its weight content ; still in the draft stage is mounted only on cars high-level , such as Ferrari, Porsche and Lamborghini.

What is Ceramic
The pottery which translated from Greek means " clay" = " potter's earth ," is composed of an inorganic material , non-metallic , very malleable stage natural, very hard after cooking. With ceramics can produce different objects, such as decorative items, kitchenware , building materials, flooring etc. . Special ceramic compositions are used in work high heat resistance, for its characteristic of high melting point . The coloring of the ceramic can vary depending on the oxides chromophores contained in clays (yellow, orange, red and brown iron oxides = ; from white to yellow with titanium oxides )

The clay
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It ' a very ductile material , as it contains within its structure the presence of water , improving quality plastic making it very easy to work with just your hands . Once dry, but has not yet undergone the process of cooking , it becomes rigid but equally fragile. Continuing with the heating will get a solid material permanently .
 

 


The production cycle

The production cycle varies depending on the result you want to achieve and on the basis of what kind of production: trade or industrial applications .


 
Handmade:

Selection and preparation of the clay
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The clay is first selected for the work you intend to carry on. Must be cleaned of impurities and to achieve this we proceed to the stage of maturation. It is then dissolved in water for washing . Finally undergoes a further purification to remove residual impurities and especially for refining it , removing the particle sizes coarser .
 

Working with clay

Checked and cleaned , we proceed to knead the clay . This phase tends to eliminate any air bubbles and to make it compact , in order to prevent the formation of cracks in the finished product . To the mixture is added, sometimes the " chamotte ", or powder obtained by grinding the ceramic previously cooked , especially with the purpose of making the product resistant to sudden changes of heat.


 


Modeling used by us :

Modelling mold
 
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In this modeling is prepared , first, a plaster mold , which tracks the object that you intend to play . So there is poured into liquid clay also called casting and after an appropriate time when the plaster provides sufficient thickness to the object , absorbing the water of the century, the casting is poured superfluous and patiently waits for the object dry. Is then extracted from the mold and finished by hand. After a drying time , the piece will then be put in the oven for the 1st firing ( biscuit ) . There are other types of molding plaster mold with a mold , forms a slab of clay of about 10 /15 mm thick depending on the size of the piece , we proceed by providing a pressure to the mixture homogeneous clay to not vary the thicknesses of the ' object to reproduce up to cover the entire surface of the mold.

 

 

 

Modeling pressingimage19

 Another method is called to pressing ( or proceeding RAM). It is used clay harder and are used two arrays of mold , one male and one female , and one that fits inside the other , leaving a vacuum that is occupied by clay. The molds are mounted on a machine that is called press, placing them opposite one another , with a dose of clay sufficient to shape the object when the machine starts its cycle . The two surfaces are approaching and foggiano the clay inside the mold .

Drying

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Whatever the technique that has been adopted , it is necessary that the objects of clay dry out completely. This phase should be given special care . A homogeneous and uniform drying is a guarantee of durability of the finished product and especially the coherence of its form : a non-uniform drying can cause warping. Only after this phase you can proceed to cooking. The drying process makes it possible that the object loses the residual moisture and its plasticity . Is thus determined the shape that it was intended to give him. After a certain time of drying the clay reaches the stage suitable to be engraved and decorated . This stage is called the stage of leather hardness : the clay is in fact already hardened , but still holds some residual plasticity .
 

 

 


Cooking
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After the delicate phase of the drying proceeds with that of the cooking. This is done in special furnaces , which reach temperatures that can go above 1000 ° C. The process can take many hours. It is indeed necessary that the temperature follow curves and predetermined gradual increase and decrease , and that all the various phases have a predetermined duration. Following cooking the product undergoes further reduction of volume.

Glazing and decoration

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COLD , by this term we want to specify colors that are applied after the first firing stage where you get the shapes ( called cookie ) . These types of colors are absorbed by the semi-finished product , very often aided by a background which creates a layer of primer . Once the decoration, which can be made by airbrush or hand brush , you can add the applications of gold leaf / silver / bronze. At the end of the coloring process of the piece , using the paints that protect and maintain over time the colors .

 

 

 

 


  
A WARM, with this term we want to specify the color of the "classical " means coloring with glazes passed in the oven. They look more polished in general .image15image12 
The enamel classic , so it is applied to the semi-finished product (called a cookie ) . Even for the glazing there are a variety of techniques : glazing with an airbrush , glazing for dipping, enamel painting . After the glazing and decoration you proceed with a second firing, the purpose of which is to fix the enamel object. As mentioned , the objects subjected to classical fittings must undergo a second baking to fix the colors . This cooking takes place in the oven at a temperature comprised between 850 and 970 ° C , depending on the fluxes used in the enamel and always below the temperature used for the first firing . This second firing will lead to vitrify the enamel , making it shiny and waterproof.

PS = Since there is moisture in the enamel , so there are dangers of breakage during the second firing .

All this affects the price , since an article decorated " HOT " will be more expensive than the same finished " COLD